The Freedom of Information Act
Government agencies are permitted to “redact” or black out, documents, in part or in their entirety, if they determine the information is “exempt” from disclosure under federal law.
The Privacy Act
Establishes a code of fair information practices that governs the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information about individuals. The purpose of the law is to balance the government’s need to maintain information about individuals with the rights of individuals to be protected against unwarranted invasions of their privacy from the collection and disclosure of these records by federal agencies
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the toughest privacy and security law in the world. Though it was drafted and passed by the European Union (EU), it imposes obligations onto organizations anywhere, so long as they target or collect data related to people in the EU. The regulation was put into effect on May 25, 2018. The GDPR will levy harsh fines against those who violate its privacy and security standards, with penalties reaching into the tens of millions of euros.
CCPA provides consumers with a private right of action and statutory damages, in the event that certain unencrypted or unredacted personal information is subject to an unauthorized access and exfiltration, theft, or disclosure, as the result of a company’s failure to implement and maintain reasonable security procedures and practices.
The HIPAA Privacy Rule establishes national standards to protect individuals' medical records and other individually identifiable health information, and applies to health plans, health care clearinghouses, and those health care providers that conduct certain health care transactions electronically. The Rule requires appropriate safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information and sets limits and conditions on the uses and disclosures that may be made of such information without an individual’s authorization.